What Genes Affect Breast Cancer?
Dr. Nikhil Eric Saldanha
July 25, 2022
Dr. Nikhil Eric Saldanha
July 25, 2022
Breast cancer is cancer that develops in breast cells. Typically, the cancer forms in either the lobules or the ducts of the breast. Breast cancer is a disease that is commonly found in women and rarely in men. According to studies, one in 8 women has breast cancer. What makes this disease scary is that it is not detected initially. It can be fatal and is the most common cancer globally. Even few men are also affected by breast cancer.
One of the most common causes of breast cancer is gene mutation. Genes are short segments of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) found in chromosomes which contain instructions for making proteins. And these proteins control the structure and performance of all the cells that make up your body. If you have inherited a mutated faulty copy of both genes from one parent, you will have a higher risk of getting breast cancer.
The most common symptoms are changes in the nipples or lumps and swelling breasts. But the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) says there are other symptoms. Not all tumours are cancerous.
People with the following symptoms should not be considered infected. However, be prepared to seek medical attention and undergo the necessary tests if you have these symptoms.
There are trillions of cells in our body, each containing DNA. It serves as the cell’s instruction manual and determines how it will function. Each piece of DNA contains 1000 genes. We must have copies of every gene because we always inherit one copy from our mother and one from our father. All these genes determine our traits like height, eye, colour, etc., and assess health status.
Some genes prevent cancer by controlling cell growth and division of tumour suppressor genes. For example, BRCA1 and BRCA2 are genes that are associated with breast cancer. Without treatment, a woman with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation is seven times more likely to develop breast cancer before 70.
Sporadic cancer happens because of acquired damage over time. Hereditary cancer is already born with one mutation and only one copy of the tumour suppressor gene. 5 to 10% of people are affected by hereditary cancers that the parents pass on to the child. It is always a risk that the one normal gene can turn into a mutated gene at any time, and this doesn’t grow the tumour but it increases the risk of a tumour forming. Cancer is genetic. All cancer happens because of an accumulation of damage to genes. Hereditary cancers have a 50-50 chance of passing cancer to the next generation. The BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes can be passed on to the next generation.
Studies have proven that the risk of breast cancer is because of an aggregate of elements. The essential factors that impact your risk include being a woman and getting older. Most breast cancers are in ladies who are 50 years or older. BRCA1 and BRCA2 account for 50% of hereditary breast cancer.
Studies show that women who have mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes have an increased risk of breast cancer. These BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are rare in the population. Based on many studies, getting breast cancer is approximately 50 to 80%. Not all women who have a gene mutation won’t get breast cancer, but the risks are very high.
BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation would not suggest you be diagnosed with breast cancer. However, researchers are studying that different mutations in pieces of chromosomes — referred to as SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) — can be related to higher breast cancer threat in women with a BRCA1 modification and women who did not inherit a breast cancer gene mutation.
Women diagnosed with breast cancer and a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation frequently have family records of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and different cancers. Still, a maximum of those who expand breast cancer no longer inherit a genetic mutation connected to breast cancer and haven’t any family records of the disease.
Once you are diagnosed with breast cancer, you will have to meet with a consultant to discuss your remedy alternatives based on your diagnosis. It consists of plenty of drug treatment, radiation, or surgical options.
The fundamental reasons why more people need to know about breast cancer are:
Breast cancer won’t show visible symptoms in the early stages. Later, it will have some lumps or thickness in the breast area. However, Breast Cancer is not a disease you can treat like a common disease. With proper testing and early detection, you can manage it early and maximise your health and chances of surviving it.
A timely physical examination and mammogram can help diagnose and treat cancer. Each one of you is in different stages of cancer. Therefore, it should be interpreted and analysed patiently, and with proper treatment, you can overcome it.
A. Most often, they are stony hard, and there might be multiple lumps in the breast. It can be varied in size and can also be reddish and dimpled.
A. The leading cause of breast cancer is the genetic mutation of genes, damage of DNA, and inherited genes such as BRCA1 and BRCA2. In addition, late childbearing, obesity, hormonal issues, alcohol intake, and tobacco use can cause cancer.
A. If cancer spreads to the lymph nodes, then the 5-year survival rate is 86%. If cancer has spread to another distant part of the body, then the 5-year survival rate is 29%.
A. the last stage of cancer can show a lot of symptoms like,
A. When identified through routine breast self-exams, the typical size of a tumour is 1 cm. When placed by women who do not perform self-exams, the average length of cancer is 2.62 cm
A. Breast cancer can spread to the lymph area. Lymph nodes won’t be painful, but they often feel like pea, olive, or pebble. It will usually be swollen.
A. If the tumour is spread, it will be in a crucial cancer stage. This stage is known as metastatic breast cancer. It might have spread to lymph nodes, bones, liver, and other parts. By doing tests and treatment, one will get to know the depth of the tumour.
A. no, chemotherapy won’t be much pain while doing it. However, there will be some mild to severe pain afterwards. Some medications can treat this pain caused by chemo.
A. Doctors can find the average size of breast tumours during a mammogram. For example, if it is the size of a marble, it can be 1cm.
A. Ultrasound scans are not as detailed as CT or MRI scans. So, it is not possible to find tumours through an ultrasound scan.