Vitamin A Deficiency: All You Need To Know

Shweta kumari

July 12, 2023

Vitamin A deficiency is a significant global health issue, particularly affecting populations in developing countries with limited access to nutritious foods. Vitamin A, a fat-soluble vitamin, plays a crucial role in maintaining normal vision, promoting growth and development, supporting immune function, and ensuring the health of epithelial tissues. However, inadequate intake or absorption of Vitamin A can lead to a deficiency, resulting in various adverse health effects.

This article aims to explore the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of Vitamin A deficiency. Understanding the impact of Vitamin A deficiency and its implications can guide public health interventions and promote better nutrition practices to mitigate its effects.

Signs and Symptoms Of Vitamin A Deficiency

Night Blindness: One of the earliest signs of vitamin A deficiency is the inability to see clearly in low-light conditions. People with night blindness often struggle with driving at night or navigating in dimly lit environments.

Dry and Flaky Skin: Research indicates that vitamin A plays a crucial role in maintaining the health and integrity of the skin. A deficiency can lead to dry, rough, and flaky skin, particularly in areas prone to dryness such as the elbows, knees, and heels.

Bitot’s Spots: Bitot’s spots are small, foamy, white spots that appear on the conjunctiva of the eye. They are a specific sign of vitamin A deficiency and are commonly seen in children. If left untreated, these spots can progress to more serious eye conditions.

Corneal Ulcers: Prolonged vitamin A deficiency can cause the cornea, the transparent front part of the eye, to become dry, opaque, and prone to infection. This can lead to the development of corneal ulcers, which can impair vision and cause pain.

Impaired Immune Function: As per studies, vitamin A plays a vital role in supporting the immune system. A deficiency can weaken the immune response, making individuals more susceptible to infections, particularly respiratory infections and diarrheal diseases.

Delayed Growth and Development in Children: Vitamin A deficiency in children can impair growth and development. It can lead to stunted growth, delayed bone development, and reduced resistance to infections, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality rates.


Vitamin A deficiency can manifest through various signs and symptoms. Night blindness, dry and flaky skin, Bitot’s spots, corneal ulcers, impaired immune function, and delayed growth and development in children are common indications of vitamin A deficiency. Night blindness affects vision in low light conditions, while dry and flaky skin can occur due to inadequate vitamin A levels. Bitot’s spots are specific white spots on the eye’s conjunctiva, and corneal ulcers can develop in severe cases. The deficiency also weakens the immune system, making individuals more prone to infections. In children, it can lead to growth and developmental issues. Early recognition and appropriate interventions are crucial to prevent complications and promote overall health.

Complications of Untreated Vitamin A Deficiency

Untreated vitamin A deficiency can lead to various complications, particularly if the deficiency persists over a prolonged period. Here are some potential complications:

Increased Risk of Infections: As aforementioned, vitamin A plays a crucial role in maintaining a healthy immune system. A deficiency can weaken the immune response, making individuals more susceptible to infections. This includes respiratory infections, such as pneumonia and bronchitis, as well as diarrheal diseases and measles.

Xerophthalmia and Blindness: Xerophthalmia is a spectrum of eye conditions caused by vitamin A deficiency. It can range from dryness and night blindness to more severe conditions like corneal ulcers and complete blindness. According to WHO reports, vitamin A deficiency,  if left untreated, can result in irreversible blindness, particularly in children.

Impaired Wound Healing: Vitamin A is involved in the process of wound healing. A deficiency can delay the healing of wounds, making individuals more prone to infections and complications associated with injuries, surgical procedures, or other trauma.

Increased Mortality, especially among children: Reports by WHO also link vitamin A deficiency to increased mortality rates, particularly among children. The weakened immune function and susceptibility to infections can lead to severe illnesses and complications that can be life-threatening.

Impaired Reproductive Health: Scientific research indicates that vitamin A deficiency can lead to complications during pregnancy in women, such as an increased risk of maternal mortality, premature birth, and low birth weight in infants. It can also affect fertility and increase the risk of maternal complications during childbirth.

Causes Of Vitamin A Deficiency

The causes of vitamin A deficiency can vary, but they generally fall into the following categories:

Insufficient Dietary Intake: Inadequate consumption of foods rich in vitamin A is one of the primary causes of deficiency. This can occur due to limited availability and access to nutritious foods, poverty, or a lack of knowledge about proper nutrition. In regions where vitamin A-rich foods are not readily available, such as fruits, vegetables, and animal liver, the risk of deficiency is higher.

Poor Absorption of Vitamin A: Even if an individual consumes sufficient amounts of vitamin A, certain factors can hinder its absorption and utilization by the body. Malabsorption disorders, such as celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and cystic fibrosis, can impair the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, including vitamin A.

Medical Conditions that Affect Vitamin A Levels: Some medical conditions can affect the body’s ability to store and utilize vitamin A. Liver diseases, pancreatic disorders, and certain genetic conditions can disrupt the metabolism and storage of vitamin A, leading to deficiency.

Inadequate Fat Intake: Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin, meaning it requires dietary fat for absorption. A diet extremely low in fat or fat-free can impair the absorption of vitamin A and increase the risk of deficiency.

Alcoholism: Chronic alcohol consumption can interfere with the absorption, storage, and metabolism of vitamin A. Alcoholics are more prone to vitamin A deficiency due to their compromised nutrient intake and impaired liver function.

Intestinal Worm Infections: Parasitic infections, particularly helminth worms, can compete with the host for nutrients, including vitamin A. These infections can lead to malabsorption and increase the risk of deficiency.

Breastfeeding without Adequate Maternal Vitamin A Stores: Infants who are exclusively breastfed by mothers with insufficient vitamin A stores are at risk of deficiency, especially after the first six months of life when their own vitamin A reserves start to deplete.


Vitamin A deficiency can occur due to insufficient dietary intake of vitamin A-rich foods, poor absorption of vitamin A, medical conditions affecting vitamin A metabolism, inadequate fat intake, chronic alcoholism, intestinal worm infections, and breastfeeding without adequate maternal vitamin A stores. These factors contribute to the risk of deficiency by limiting the availability, absorption, or utilization of vitamin A in the body. Addressing these causes through improved nutrition, treating underlying medical conditions, and promoting awareness can help prevent and treat vitamin A deficiency.

Diagnosis of Vitamin A Deficiency

Diagnosing vitamin A deficiency typically involves a combination of clinical assessment and laboratory tests. Here are the commonly used methods for diagnosing vitamin A deficiency:

Clinical Assessment: A healthcare professional will evaluate the individual’s medical history, dietary habits, and signs and symptoms suggestive of vitamin A deficiency. They will perform a physical examination, paying attention to specific clinical signs associated with vitamin A deficiency, such as night blindness, dry skin, and eye abnormalities.

Dietary Assessment: The healthcare professional may inquire about the individual’s dietary intake, focusing on foods rich in vitamin A. A lack of consumption of vitamin A-rich foods may indicate a higher risk of deficiency.

Blood Tests: Blood tests are commonly used to measure vitamin A levels in the body. The two main types of blood tests for diagnosing vitamin A deficiency are:

  • Serum Retinol Level: Serum retinol concentration is the most widely used biomarker to assess vitamin A status. Blood samples are collected, and the level of retinol (the active form of vitamin A) in the serum is measured. Levels below the normal range indicate a deficiency.
  • Serum Retinol-Binding Protein (RBP): Retinol-binding protein is a carrier protein that transports vitamin A in the blood. Measuring serum RBP levels can provide additional information about vitamin A status. Low levels of serum RBP are indicative of vitamin A deficiency.

Treatment and Prevention of Vitamin A Deficiency

Effective treatment and prevention strategies are essential to address vitamin A deficiency. Here are some approaches commonly employed:

Dietary Modifications: Promoting a diverse and balanced diet that includes foods rich in vitamin A is crucial for prevention and treatment. Encouraging the consumption of vitamin A-rich foods such as liver, fish, dairy products, eggs, carrots, sweet potatoes, spinach, and other leafy greens can help increase vitamin A intake. Nutrition education programs can raise awareness about the importance of a nutritious diet and provide guidance on food choices. Read about the various sources of Vitamin A and its health benefits: Vitamin A Rich Foods – Vegan Foods, Non-Veg Foods, Benefits

Food Fortification: Fortifying commonly consumed staple foods with vitamin A is an effective strategy to increase the overall intake of this nutrient. Common fortification approaches include fortifying cooking oils, sugar, flour, and other processed foods with vitamin A. This approach is particularly beneficial in populations where dietary diversity is limited.

Breastfeeding and Maternal Supplementation: Encouraging and supporting breastfeeding is crucial for both maternal and infant health. Maternal vitamin A stores are essential for providing adequate amounts to breastfeeding infants. Promoting exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months and continued breastfeeding with complementary foods thereafter helps prevent vitamin A deficiency in infants.

HealthifyMe Suggestion 

Whole foods originating from both plants and animals contain vitamin A. The two main forms of vitamin A obtained from food are beta-carotene (found in orange, red, and yellow foods) and active vitamin A, commonly known as retinol. Some of the best vitamin A meals are carrots, sweet potatoes, kale, spinach, berries, apricots, papaya, cantaloupe, mangoes, eggs, butter, raw milk and cheeses, cod liver oil, and organ meats like liver. A healthy, balanced diet is an excellent approach to supply your body with a sufficient amount of this important mineral.


Vitamin A deficiency is a significant public health concern, particularly in low-income and resource-limited settings. It can have severe consequences for both children and adults, leading to impaired vision, compromised immune function, delayed growth, and increased mortality rates. Recognizing the signs and symptoms of vitamin A deficiency is crucial for early diagnosis and intervention.

Efforts to address vitamin A deficiency involve a multi-faceted approach. This includes vitamin A supplementation programs, promoting dietary diversity and consumption of vitamin A-rich foods, fortification of staple foods, and education on nutrition and healthy lifestyles.  By addressing vitamin A deficiency, we can significantly reduce the burden of associated health complications, improve the quality of life for individuals and communities, and contribute to the overall well-being and development of populations worldwide.

Disclaimer: The purpose of this article is just to disperse knowledge and raise awareness. It does not intend to replace medical advice from professionals. For further information please contact our certified nutritionists Here

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

What is the major deficiency of vitamin A?

The major deficiency of vitamin A is known as vitamin A deficiency, characterized by inadequate levels of vitamin A in the body.

What are the 3 signs of vitamin A deficiency?

Three signs of vitamin A deficiency include night blindness, dry and flaky skin, and Bitot’s spots on the conjunctiva of the eye.

Is vitamin deficiency a disease?

Vitamin deficiency itself is not a disease, but it can lead to various health issues and complications. Deficiencies in certain vitamins can contribute to specific diseases or conditions.

How can I increase my vitamin A level?

You can increase your vitamin A levels by consuming foods rich in vitamin A, such as liver, fish, dairy products, eggs, carrots, sweet potatoes, spinach, and other leafy greens. Vitamin A supplementation may also be recommended by a healthcare professional if needed.

What food has vitamin A?

Foods that contain vitamin A include liver, fish, dairy products, eggs, carrots, sweet potatoes, spinach, kale, broccoli, and cantaloupe, among others.

What is the best vitamin A to take?

The best vitamin A supplement to take should be determined by a healthcare professional based on individual needs and circumstances. They can provide guidance on the appropriate form and dosage of vitamin A supplements.

What are the 4 diseases caused by vitamin deficiency?

Four diseases caused by vitamin deficiency are scurvy (vitamin C deficiency), rickets (vitamin D deficiency), beriberi (vitamin B1 deficiency), and pellagra (niacin or vitamin B3 deficiency).

What are the 4 stages of vitamin deficiency?

The four stages of vitamin deficiency are depletion, deficiency, subclinical deficiency, and clinical deficiency. These stages represent the progression of vitamin deficiency from initial depletion to severe clinical symptoms.

How do you test for vitamin A deficiency?

Vitamin A deficiency can be tested by measuring the levels of retinol (the active form of vitamin A) in the blood. Blood tests for serum retinol concentration or serum retinol-binding protein (RBP) can provide information about vitamin A status.

Which fruit is rich in vitamin A?

Some fruits rich in vitamin A include mangoes, apricots, cantaloupe, and papaya. However, the concentration of vitamin A in fruits is generally lower compared to animal sources and vegetables.

Can vitamin A cause anaemia?

Vitamin A deficiency can contribute to anaemia, particularly iron-deficiency anaemia. However, excessive intake of vitamin A supplements can also have adverse effects, so it’s important to maintain an appropriate balance.

Which vitamin is very powerful?

All vitamins play important roles in the body, and their functions are interdependent. It is difficult to classify one vitamin as more powerful than others, as their effectiveness depends on specific biological processes and individual requirements.

Is it safe to take vitamin A daily?

It is generally safe to take vitamin A daily as part of a balanced diet or as recommended by healthcare professionals. However, excessive intake of vitamin A supplements can be harmful. It is important to follow recommended daily intake guidelines and consult a healthcare professional for personalized advice.

What is vitamin A good for the skin?

Vitamin A is essential for maintaining healthy skin. It promotes skin cell growth, helps regulate oil production, and supports the overall health and integrity of the skin. It is often used in topical creams or ointments for various skin conditions.

How much vitamin A is in the liver?

The liver, particularly beef liver, is a rich source of vitamin A. The specific vitamin A content in the liver can vary, but a 3-ounce (85g) serving of beef liver can provide well above the daily recommended intake of vitamin A for most individuals, exceeding 100% of the recommended value.

Research Links 

  1. Role of Vitamin A in the Immune System:
  1. Vitamin A deficiency:,months%20of%20losing%20their%20sight.
  1. Vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy for maternal and newborn outcomes:,delivery%2C%20low%20birthweight%20or%20a

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