Skeletal Muscle Mass: Understanding its Importance and Strategies for Maintenance

Mehak Shah

August 3, 2023

Skeletal muscle mass refers to the total weight of all voluntary muscles attached to the skeleton. It constitutes a significant portion of the body’s lean mass and is responsible for generating movement, posture, and strength. Skeletal muscles are composed of long, multinucleated fibers that contract when stimulated by nerve impulses. Maintaining and increasing skeletal muscle mass is crucial for overall health, physical performance, and metabolism. 

Skeletal muscle mass is vital for overall health and function as it directly impacts various aspects of well-being. It supports mobility, strength, and posture, enabling efficient movement and physical activities. Increased muscle mass is associated with higher metabolic rate, aiding in weight management and reducing the risk of obesity-related conditions. Skeletal muscles also act as a reservoir for amino acids, promoting protein synthesis and tissue repair. Moreover, they play a role in glucose uptake, contributing to better insulin sensitivity and reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes.

Role of Skeletal Muscle in Health

Skeletal muscle mass plays a crucial role in overall health and well-being. It is not just important for strength and physical performance; it also influences various physiological processes and has implications for metabolic health, body composition, and disease risk. Here are some key aspects of the role of skeletal muscle mass in health:

1. Metabolism and Energy Expenditure

Skeletal muscle is a metabolically active tissue that requires energy for its maintenance and functioning. Having a higher amount of lean muscle mass increases the basal metabolic rate (BMR), which is the number of calories your body burns at rest. This means that individuals with more muscle mass tend to have a higher resting metabolic rate, making it easier for them to maintain a healthy weight and manage body fat.

2. Glucose Regulation and Insulin Sensitivity

Skeletal muscle plays a critical role in glucose uptake from the bloodstream, which helps regulate blood sugar levels. When muscle tissue is sensitive to insulin, it efficiently utilizes glucose for energy, reducing the risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Regular physical activity, especially resistance training, can improve insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance.

3. Body Composition

Skeletal muscle contributes to a healthy body composition by increasing the ratio of lean body mass (muscle, bones, organs) to body fat. A higher muscle-to-fat ratio is associated with better health outcomes, as excessive body fat can increase the risk of various chronic conditions such as heart disease, hypertension, and metabolic disorders.

4. Bone Health

Skeletal muscle exerts mechanical forces on bones during movement, which helps maintain bone density and strength. Regular weight-bearing activities, such as resistance training, contribute to bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis and fractures, especially as individuals age.

5. Physical Function and Mobility

Strong and well-functioning muscles are essential for daily activities and overall physical performance. Maintaining skeletal muscle mass and strength is crucial for preserving functional independence, mobility, and quality of life, particularly in older adults.

6. Hormonal Regulation

Skeletal muscle is involved in hormone production and release. For instance, myokines, which are cytokines released by muscle cells during contraction, have various roles in immune regulation, inflammation, and metabolism.

7. Cardiovascular Health

Engaging in regular physical activity that includes muscle-strengthening exercises has a positive impact on cardiovascular health. Exercise can lower blood pressure, improve lipid profiles, and reduce the risk of heart disease.

8. Mental Health

Physical activity, including resistance training, has been linked to improved mood, reduced stress, and better cognitive function. These benefits can positively influence mental health and overall well-being.


Skeletal muscle mass is not only important for physical performance and strength but also has far-reaching implications for metabolic health, body composition, disease prevention, and overall quality of life. Regular exercise, particularly resistance training, is a key strategy to maintain and increase skeletal muscle mass and unlock the numerous health benefits associated with it. However, it’s essential to consider individual needs and consult with healthcare professionals before starting any new exercise or dietary regimen, especially for individuals with specific health conditions.

Factors Affecting Skeletal Muscle Mass

Several factors can influence skeletal muscle mass, including both genetic and lifestyle-related factors. Here are some of the key factors affecting skeletal muscle mass:

1. Genetics

Genetics plays a significant role in determining an individual’s skeletal muscle mass potential. Some people naturally have a higher propensity for muscle development and maintenance due to their genetic makeup. Genetic factors influence muscle fiber type distribution, hormonal responses, and overall muscle growth capabilities, ultimately impacting an individual’s ability to build and maintain muscle mass.

2. Physical Activity

Regular physical activity, especially resistance training and weight-bearing exercises, positively impacts skeletal muscle mass. Engaging in muscle-strengthening activities induces muscle fiber adaptation and hypertrophy, leading to increased muscle mass. Mechanical stress during exercise triggers muscle protein synthesis, enhancing muscle tissue repair and growth. Additionally, physical activity stimulates the release of growth-promoting hormones, such as testosterone and growth hormone, which further support muscle development.

3. Diet and Nutrition

Adequate protein intake is essential for muscle protein synthesis and muscle repair. Consuming enough calories and essential nutrients, including protein, carbohydrates, fats, and micronutrients, supports muscle growth and maintenance.

4. Hormonal Factors

Hormonal factors play a critical role in influencing skeletal muscle mass. Hormones like testosterone, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) promote muscle protein synthesis and hypertrophy, enhancing muscle growth. Higher levels of anabolic hormones, such as testosterone, are associated with increased muscle mass. Conversely, elevated levels of catabolic hormones like cortisol may lead to muscle breakdown. Hormonal imbalances, such as in conditions like hypogonadism or growth hormone deficiency, can hinder muscle development. Proper hormonal regulation, achieved through lifestyle choices and medical interventions, supports optimal skeletal muscle mass.

5. Age

As individuals age, they experience a natural decline in muscle mass and strength, known as sarcopenia. This age-related muscle loss is partly attributed to reduced anabolic hormone production, decreased muscle protein synthesis, and altered muscle fiber composition. Inactive lifestyles and inadequate protein intake can exacerbate the decline. Regular resistance training and a balanced diet with sufficient protein are crucial strategies to counteract age-related muscle loss and maintain muscle mass and function as one gets older.

6. Sex

Sex has a significant impact on skeletal muscle mass. In general, men tend to have higher muscle mass than women due to higher testosterone levels, which promote muscle protein synthesis and hypertrophy. Women typically have a higher proportion of body fat, while men have more lean muscle mass. However, the influence of sex on muscle mass can be modulated by various factors, including genetics, hormones, and physical activity levels. Both men and women can improve muscle mass through proper nutrition and regular resistance training.

7. Chronic Illness and Conditions

Chronic illnesses can negatively affect skeletal muscle mass through a process called muscle wasting or cachexia. Conditions like cancer, HIV/AIDS, chronic kidney disease, and certain inflammatory disorders can trigger muscle protein breakdown and inhibit muscle protein synthesis. Elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines and metabolic disturbances play a role in muscle wasting. Additionally, prolonged bed rest or immobilization due to chronic illness can lead to muscle atrophy. Managing the underlying condition, proper nutrition, and targeted exercise can help mitigate muscle loss in these situations.

8. Stress

Elevated levels of the stress hormone cortisol can lead to increased muscle protein breakdown and reduced muscle protein synthesis, leading to muscle loss. Stress-induced inflammation and changes in hormonal balance can further contribute to muscle wasting. Additionally, stress may affect sleep quality and appetite, potentially leading to inadequate recovery and nutrition, which can also hinder muscle maintenance and growth. Managing stress through relaxation techniques, regular exercise, and a healthy lifestyle can help mitigate its detrimental effects on skeletal muscle mass.


Genetics, physical activity, diet, hormones, age, sex, chronic illness, and stress all influence skeletal muscle mass. Genetic factors impact muscle development potential, while physical activity induces muscle adaptation and growth. Adequate protein intake supports muscle synthesis. Hormones like testosterone and growth factors promote muscle growth, while age-related decline and chronic illnesses can cause muscle wasting. Sex affects muscle mass, with men generally having more due to higher testosterone levels. Stress, through cortisol release, can lead to muscle breakdown. Proper nutrition, exercise, and stress management are crucial for maintaining muscle mass.

How To Maintain Or Increase Skeletal Muscle Mass

  1. Protein-Rich Diet: Consume sufficient protein to support muscle protein synthesis and repair. Aim for a balanced diet with lean sources of protein, such as chicken, fish, tofu, beans, and dairy products.
  1. Caloric Balance: Maintain a balanced calorie intake that aligns with your activity level and goals. Avoid extreme calorie deficits, as they can lead to muscle loss.
  1. Resistance Training: Engage in regular strength training exercises at least 2-3 times per week. Focus on compound movements like squats, deadlifts, bench presses, and pull-ups, as they target multiple muscle groups simultaneously.
  1. Progressive Overload: Gradually increase the intensity or resistance of your exercises over time to challenge your muscles and promote continuous growth.
  1. Variation: Include a variety of exercises to target different muscle groups and prevent plateaus in muscle development.
  1. Adequate Rest and Recovery: Allow sufficient time for muscle recovery between workouts. Get 7-9 hours of quality sleep each night to support muscle repair and growth.
  1. Hydration: Stay well-hydrated, as water is essential for muscle function and overall health.
  1. Manage Stress: Practice stress-reducing techniques like meditation, yoga, or mindfulness, as excessive stress can hinder muscle growth.
  1. Avoid Overtraining: Listen to your body and avoid excessive training without adequate recovery, as it may lead to muscle breakdown and injury.
  1. Limit Alcohol and Smoking: Reduce alcohol intake and avoid smoking, as both can negatively impact muscle protein synthesis.
  1. Maintain Hormonal Balance: Address hormonal imbalances through proper medical management, as hormones like testosterone play a critical role in muscle growth.
  2. Stay Active: Incorporate regular physical activity throughout the day, even outside of formal workouts, to promote overall health and muscle maintenance.

Remember that individual responses to these strategies may vary, so it’s essential to tailor them to your specific needs and goals. Consulting with a certified fitness trainer or healthcare professional can provide personalized advice and guidance to maximize your efforts in maintaining and increasing skeletal muscle mass.

Can Smart Scales Measure Skeletal Muscle Mass?

Smart scales use a technology called bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to estimate Skeletal Muscle Mass (SMM). BIA works by sending a weak electrical current through the body. Skeletal muscle, containing more water and electrolytes than other tissues, offers less resistance to this current, allowing the scale to calculate the body’s total muscle mass. The scale measures the impedance or resistance to the electrical current and uses an algorithm to estimate SMM based on factors like height, weight, age, sex, and the measured impedance. 

HealthifyMe Suggestion

Skeletal muscles are a type of muscle tissue found in the human body. They play an important role in improving the body’s strength and providing more structure to it. This group of muscles is important for voluntary movements and play a crucial role in locomotion, posture, and various physical activities. 

On the side note skeletal muscles are also essential for maintaining body temperature, as they generate heat during muscle contractions, helping to regulate the body’s temperature. 

To preserve these muscles one should do regular exercises, have proper nutrients, and prioritize your health.


Skeletal muscle mass plays a pivotal role in overall health and functionality. It is essential for maintaining a healthy metabolism, supporting physical performance, and promoting bone health and joint stability. Additionally, adequate muscle mass is linked to improved insulin sensitivity and glucose regulation. As we age, preserving muscle mass becomes crucial in preventing sarcopenia, a condition characterized by age-related muscle loss. Regular exercise, proper nutrition, and hormonal regulation are vital factors in maintaining skeletal muscle mass. Understanding and prioritizing its significance can contribute to enhanced well-being, quality of life, and healthy aging.

Disclaimer: The purpose of this article is just to disperse knowledge and raise awareness. It does not intend to replace medical advice from professionals. For further information please contact our certified nutritionists Here

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Why is skeletal muscle mass important? 

Skeletal muscle mass is vital for strength, mobility, and overall physical performance. It influences metabolism, helps regulate blood sugar, supports bone health, and enhances body composition. Maintaining muscle mass is essential for functional independence and reducing the risk of age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia).

How is skeletal muscle mass different from overall body weight? 

Skeletal muscle mass specifically refers to the weight of the muscle tissue in the body, while overall body weight includes all components like bones, organs, body fat, and fluids.

Can skeletal muscle mass be increased through exercise? 

Yes, regular resistance training and muscle-strengthening exercises can increase skeletal muscle mass through muscle hypertrophy and adaptation.

What factors can affect skeletal muscle mass? 

Factors include genetics, physical activity, diet, hormones, age, sex, chronic illness, stress, and overall lifestyle choices.

Is skeletal muscle mass the same as lean body mass? 

Yes, skeletal muscle mass is a component of lean body mass, which also includes bones, organs, and other non-fat tissues.

Can skeletal muscle mass be measured or estimated? 

Yes, methods like bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) can estimate skeletal muscle mass.

Can skeletal muscle mass be different in different parts of the body? 

Yes, muscle distribution varies across the body, with some regions having more muscle mass than others.

How does age affect skeletal muscle mass? 

Age-related muscle loss, called sarcopenia, leads to a gradual decline in skeletal muscle mass and strength.

What are the benefits of maintaining or increasing skeletal muscle mass? 

Increasing skeletal muscle mass benefits include improved metabolism, bone health, physical function, and reduced risk of chronic diseases.

Can skeletal muscle mass contribute to metabolic health?

Yes, higher muscle mass is associated with better metabolic health, as it improves glucose regulation and insulin sensitivity.

Are there specific dietary requirements for supporting skeletal muscle mass?

A protein-rich diet, with adequate calories and essential nutrients, is crucial for supporting muscle mass.

Can skeletal muscle mass be regained after a period of muscle loss? 

Yes, with appropriate exercise and nutrition, lost muscle mass can often be regained.

Can skeletal muscle mass impact overall body composition? 

Yes, skeletal muscle mass influences the proportion of lean body mass and body fat in overall body composition.

Are there any genetic factors that influence skeletal muscle mass? 

Yes, genetics plays a significant role in an individual’s potential for skeletal muscle mass development.

How can skeletal muscle mass be maintained or improved as we age? 

Engage in regular resistance training, consume sufficient protein, and adopt a healthy lifestyle to maintain or increase skeletal muscle mass as you age.

About the Author

Mehak holds masters in foods and nutrition from Amity university, Noida. She has a keen interest in public health and nutrition and has been in charge of various projects with milestone NGO. She has worked with people over the globe to bring out the changes in their lives and has always been working towards lifestyle modifications via good dietary practices. According to her a healthy lifestyle is not about the destination but all about the journey.

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